Estimated Potassium Removal and you may Risks of Passing and you can Cardio Events

Panel A reports a restricted-cubic-spline patch of your connection anywhere between projected 24-hours urinary potassium excretion and also the element of demise from one cause and you can significant aerobic situations Sheffield free hookup website. The latest spline contour try truncated during the 4.00 grams everyday (event rates among professionals having potassium excretion >4.00 g each day, 13 occurrences into the 397 players). Study with the potassium excretion have been shed to have 58 users (0.1%). Therefore, the latest shot within the research for the chemical consequence of passing and you may significant cardiovascular situations are 101,887 participants that have 3314 situations. Panel B shows a limited-cubic-spline patch of your relationship anywhere between estimated potassium removal and dying out-of any result in. Case rates among people which have potassium removal greater than cuatro.00 grams every single day is cuatro situations into the 397 people. Committee C shows a restricted-cubic-spline spot of the connection anywhere between projected potassium removal and you can significant cardio incidents (identified as dying of cardio reasons, myocardial infarction, coronary attack, otherwise cardiovascular system inability). The event rates certainly one of users with potassium removal in excess of 4.00 grams daily is actually eleven situations inside 397 participants. non-Asian), alcoholic beverages intake, body-mass list, and you will standing when it comes to all forms of diabetes mellitus, history of cardio incidents, and you will latest puffing. Dashed lines mean 95% count on durations. The brand new median level of potassium excretion (2.07 g every day) are the reference simple, indicated of the red-colored range.

Every plots of land were adjusted for many years, sex, geographical part, educational peak, ancestry (Asian compared to

As compared with an estimated potassium excretion of less than step one.fifty g each day, a higher projected excretion regarding potassium was of the a reduction on the risks of demise and you will cardiovascular situations towards the multivariable studies ( Figure 2 and Desk 3 ); that it association are mainly regarding a decrease in the risk out of passing (Table S3 on the Additional Appendix). There can be zero proof a conversation anywhere between projected potassium and you will sodium excretion depending on the top chemical consequences (P=0.55) (Table S4 regarding Second Appendix).

Subgroup and you will Susceptibility Analyses

Blood pressure at standard (recognized as a prior diagnosis away from blood pressure otherwise hypertension > mm Hg) changed the brand new association between a high estimated sodium removal as well as the mixture outcome (P=0.02 to have correspondence) (Dining table S4 regarding the Secondary Appendix). During the further research, there’s somewhat enhanced chance observed one of people that have baseline blood pressure level and you may an estimated sodium removal out-of 6.00 so you can six.99 g every day (possibility proportion, step one.14; 95% CI, step one.00 to just one.30) otherwise eight.00 grams a-day or higher (potential proportion, step one.21; 95% CI, step 1.05 to 1.40), whereas discover zero significant association one of those as opposed to hypertension. There have been not any other tall subgroup interactions (Tables S4 and S5 from the Supplementary Appendix).

The exclusion of participants with cardiovascular disease (at baseline) or cancer (at baseline or follow-up) or those who had events in the first year of follow-up did not materially affect the findings from the sodium and potassium analyses. When participants with events in the first 2 years were excluded, the associations of a lower (<3.00 g per day) and higher (6.00 to 6.99 g per day) estimated sodium excretion with the primary outcome were significant ( Table 2 and Table 3 ). In a propensity-score–matched analysis that included 21,220 participants, a low estimated sodium excretion (<3.00 g per day), as compared with a moderate level (3.00 to 5.99 g per day), was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.46). In a similar analysis that included 40,618 participants, a high estimated sodium excretion (?6.00 g per day), as compared with a moderate level, was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.34) (Table S6 in the Supplementary Appendix). The results of analyses adjusted for regression dilution bias are presented in Fig. S1 and S2 in the Supplementary Appendix. The results of the array-approach sensitivity analysis are provided in Table S7 in the Supplementary Appendix.


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