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Rosenlund Meters, Berglind Letter, Hallqvist J, Bellander T, Bluhm G. 2005. Every single day intake out-of magnesium and you can calcium supplements of drinking water from inside the relation so you’re able to myocardial infarction. Epidemiology 16(4):570-576.

Rubenowitz E, Axelsson G, Rylander R. 1996. Magnesium into the liquid and you will demise off acute myocardial infarction. Was J Epidemiol 143(5):456-462.

Rubenowitz E, Axelsson Grams, Rylander Roentgen. 1999. Magnesium and calcium supplements in the water and you can demise regarding intense myocardial infarction in women. Epidemiology 10(1):31-36.

Dating out of serum and slimming down magnesium in order to incident blood circulation pressure: the fresh Atherosclerosis Risk inside the Teams (ARIC) Data

Rubenowitz E, Molin I, Axelsson G, Rylander Roentgen. 2000. Magnesium for the drinking water about morbidity and you may mortality from intense myocardial infarction. Epidemiology eleven(4):416-421.

Sauvant MP, Pepin D. 2000. Geographic variation of your own death from heart problems and you can h2o inside a French quick area (Puy de Dome). Environ Res 84(3):219-227.

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Lina J. Leurs, (1) Leo J. Schouten, (1) Margreet Letter. Mons, (2) Roentgen. Alexandra Goldbohm, (3) and you may PietA. van den Brandt (1)

(1) Maastricht College or university, GROW-College or university to possess Oncology and you can Developmental Biology, Company regarding Epidemiology, Maastricht, the netherlands; (2) KWR, Watercycle Look Institute, Nieuwegein, holland; (3) TNO Well being, Institution out-of Avoidance and you may Health, Leiden, the netherlands

Target communication in order to L.J. Leurs, Maastricht College or university, GROW-School having Oncology and you may Developmental Biology, Department from Epidemiology, P.O. Package 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, holland. Telephone: 29 0 43 3882392. Fax: 29 0 43 3884128. E-mail:

Our company is indebted to the users in the data and want to thank the new Dutch Central Agency away from Genealogy and family history and you can Analytics Netherlands having providing analysis. We and give thanks to An excellent. Volovics and you can A beneficial. Kester to own analytical information; S. van de Crommert, H. Brants, J. Nelissen, C. de Zwart, Yards. Moll, W. van Dijk, and you may A great. Pisters having direction; and you can H. van Montfort, T. van Moergasiel, L. van den Bosch, R. Schmeitz, and J. Berben getting coding recommendations.

Which project try held in the Mutual Search Program of the Dutch liquid companies by the boffins away from Maastricht College or university and you can KWR, Watercycle Lookup Institute. This study is actually financed because of the KWR, Watercycle Research Institute.

Roentgen.A good.Grams. and you may M.N.Yards. benefit consulting people (TNO Standard of living and KWR, respectively); yet not, neither has actually ever performed any earlier in the day browse for the latest material discussed regarding the manuscript. Additionally, additional summary of the form and you may results is actually used by the a Scientific Consultative Panel comprising P. Huntsman (School regarding Eastern Anglia), R. Rylander (emeritus teacher), and Meters.I. Sinclair (H2o Quality Lookup Australian continent Limited, Monash College or university).

Extremely knowledge you to definitely claimed a keen inverse organization between water stiffness and you will IHD or heart attack death was ecologic knowledge (Kousa ainsi que al. 2004, 2006, 2008; Maheswaran mais aussi al. 1999; ; Sauvant and you will Pepin 2000). The newest accuracy of these variety of training can often be expected since of one’s you’ll be able to ecologic fallacy. A number of circumstances-control and cohort education with little to no or no improvement getting confounding facts in addition to recommended a prospective protective effect of h2o firmness, calcium supplements or magnesium levels from inside the drinking water, toward death due to IHD otherwise heart attack (Luoma et al. 1983; Punsar and you will Karvonen 1979; Rubenowitz ainsi que al. 1996, 1999; Yang 1998; Yang et al. 2006). On top of that, most case-manage and you may cohort studies one to adjusted having a great deal of possible confounders, such as for instance cardiovascular exposure issues and you will liquid functions, located no dating anywhere between liquid stiffness and you can IHD or coronary attack mortality (Comstock et al. 1980; Morris ainsi que al. 2001; Rosenlund mais aussi al. 2005). This new difference is the scenario-manage studies used from the Rubenowitz mais aussi al. (2000) one to stated straight down death from serious myocardial infarction (however on overall occurrence) and you will magnesium from inside the drinking water once adjusting to possess an over-all range out of possible confounders.

Mineral intake is modified for times consumption of the residual approach (Willett and you may Stampfer 1986). The fresh new survey study had been trick-inserted double and you will canned during the a standard trends dazzled in respect in order to instance/subcohort condition to minimize observer prejudice into the coding and you can data translation.

The analyzed exposure variables were total tap water hardness, tap water magnesium, and calcium concentration. In the multivariate analysis, we corrected for potential confounding of other known IHD risk factors: age at baseline (years), cigarette smoking (coded as current vs. never/former smoker and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and years of active smoking), hypertension (yes/no), diabetes (yes/no), body mass index (BMI) (coded as < 18.5 kg/[m.sup.2], 18.5-25 kg/[m.sup.2], 25-30 kg/[m.sup.2], [greater than or equal to] 30 kg/[m.sup.2]), nonoccupational physical activity (coded in tour categories: very little, average, active, or very active), educational level [coded as primary school, lower vocational, high school (junior and senior), and higher vocational/university], total energy intake (kilocalories per day), alcohol consumption (coded in five categories: 0 g/day, 0.1-5 g/day, 5-15 g/day, 15-30 g/day, 2 30 g/day). energy-adjusted saturated/monounsaturated/ polyunsaturated fat consumption (grams per day), and fruit and vegetable consumption (grams per day). We included additional factors that influence the amount of calcium or magnesium absorption from tap water: use of diuretics (yes/no), multivitamin intake (yes/no), calcium supplement intake (yes/no), energy-adjusted dietary calcium and magnesium consumption (milligrams per clay), and total volume of tap water consumption (milliliters per day) (Elin 1988; Greenland et al. 2003; Hornstra et al. 1998; Wilson 1999). When tap water calcium concentration (milligrams per liter) was analyzed, additional adjustment for tap water magnesium concentration (milligrams per liter) occurred and vice versa.

Gillies Me, Paulin HV. 1983. Variability of nutrient consumption away from water: a prospective need to your conflict along side dating out of drinking water high quality so you’re able to heart problems. Int J Epidemiol 12(1):45-50.


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