- The ebook “The brand new Science of Running Liquid in town off Damascus otherwise an excellent Treatise into Technology of Liquids” of the Sheikh Muhammad Husayn al-Attar.
- In the long run, i choose from what was mentioned from the book “Al-Filaha” of the Ibn al-Awam (regarding the individuals of the newest sixth millennium AH) to your types of inferring the existence of drinking water in the floor when digging wells, in which the guide indicated that he could be divided:
- When viewing the newest dew from the attention and you can pressing it that have this new hands, particularly inside the first hr of the day in addition to history time of it.
- In the event your rocks of mountain is actually dusty with okay dirt, they fold, imply the current presence of drinking water, and with the variety regarding water and its particular low quantity of dew.
- By the eavesdropping on the surface of one’s mountain, whether your mountain hears a constant sound in a single believe that cannot differ, the fresh sound out of drinking water is actually.
- If your crushed try black colored otherwise extremely dirty, gooey in the event the tiniest liquids hits it, this indicates the clear presence of liquid.
- If the soil preferences in place of bitterness and you will salinity, then it is watery.
- If chamomile, basil, mullet, and borage can be found, next liquid is within the soil.
- In the event the ground smells like the fresh new mud extracted from streams and you can streams, then h2o is close to top of the earth.
3.step 1.step three.six Qanat (H2o Channel)
Historically, the newest aqueduct-eg qanat technology, the system regarding providing liquid within the rivers over long distances, was created by the Persians in the middle of the very first millennium BC, and later spread with the Arabian Peninsula and you can Egypt. In the Islamic era, streams became probably one of the most active strategies for providing drinking water in the countries one to didn’t have direct access to virtually any source away from h2o. These development was indeed none put up nor improved but survived courtesy Byzantine and very early medieval moments. Experience and knowledge out of Muslim ancestors you will definitely nonetheless enjoy an essential character into the sustainable water-supply in both set up and development regions, often at this time or in tomorrow. Aqueducts or qanats technology is characterized by its toughness and you can sustainability and they are still used a number of parts of the world. It must be detailed that qanat experience titled aqueduct during the Europe, qanat for the Iran, faggora inside the Algeria, khattara into the Morocco, kariga inside the Tunisia, sahreej in the Yemen, falaj from the Arab Emirates and Oman, and you can Kariz inside main China. [183, 184, and you can 185].
Later, brand new Ottomans observed more mature processes out-of liquids qanat, reintroducing large-measure aqueducts to supply their growing metropolitan areas having enough liquid having religious and you may public aim along with ingesting
Typically, the latest aqueduct-like qanat tech is made from the Persians about ca. center of initial 100 years BC and soon after give with the Arabian Peninsula and you may Egypt.
The minder qanat, a gravity-provided water supply program composed of an underground canal linked to the outside by the some shafts, is widely implemented over the arid components of the latest Muslim world so that as much given that Xianging province when you look at the China [187, 188]
Karez noted your drinking water canal titled faqara otherwise faggara, got widespread later on in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and you may Algeria. It’s a network found in the new desert area to hold groundwater toward body of the planet to be used for the sipping, irrigation and you may animals watering .
Thabet 2019 noted you to definitely Al-Faggara, are considered the chief organ for life regarding wilderness, in southern area Algeria. Al-Faggara in the Algeria would-have-been delivered regarding the 11th and you will 12th years of the Este Malik El Mansur, who has dug the first foggara 15 kilometres out-of Adrar from the a place named Tamantit . Then, Al-Faggara was created when you look at the Touat and you can Gourara and you will Tidikelt by Arab-Berber people[194, 195]. Al- faggara include digging below ground free galleries (canals) in an exceedingly reduced slope that may register and you will penetrate the fresh new upstream groundwater aquifer of your plateau. Water throughout the water table of your own aquifer seeps over the walls of below ground art galleries (canals) and you will versions a long-term drinking water weight. These types of underground galleries was designated on top from the manholes one to ensure it is repairs and you will unexpected clean up of mud cluttering the fresh new free galleries. Today, this ancestral hydraulic system nevertheless operates even after solid competition from other just take process particularly system heels and you may drilling.